Endometriosis is a condition associated with the reproductive organs of women. It is usually diagnosed through laparoscopy, and can be treated through surgery and oral prescription. It is basically having a lining of the uterus present in other areas of the body, causing pain to the patient.
The University of California Los Angeles Health Website has explained the condition, saying the usual symptoms include painful menstrual periods, pain with intercourse, and irregular or heavy bleeding. The article also mentioned that it is also possible that the patient will not experience any type of symptom.
“Endometriosis is when the tissue that makes up the uterine lining (the lining of the womb) is present on other organs inside your body. Endometriosis is usually found in the lower abdomen, or pelvis, but can appear anywhere in the body. Women with endometriosis often have lower abdominal pain, pain with periods, or pain with sexual intercourse, and may report having a hard time getting pregnant.” Read the rest of the explanation here.
Other symptoms may include pain during bowel movement, pain during urination, infertility, fatigue, constipation and bloating during menstrual periods.
As for the causes, health experts say it can be attributed to retrograde menstruation, surgical scar implantation, transformation of peritoneal cells, among other possible causes. There are also several risk factors for endometriosis and this may include not experiencing childbirth, early onset of menstruation, having menopause at a later age, higher levels of estrogen, low body mass index, to name a few. Possible complications on the other hand are infertility and ovarian cancer.
When a patient visits a doctor to complain about the symptoms, the obstetrician usually performs a pelvic examination. She may also recommend a transvaginal ultrasound and an MRI. Usually when there is pain associated with the examination, adnexal pain, tenderness or nodularity in the uterosacral ligaments, reduced mobility of the ovaries or uterus, nodularity in the ulterior cul-de-sac, endometriosis is suspected. A laparoscopy can confirm whether the case is indeed endometriosis.
Treatment usually can be done first through oral medications. If that does not work, then hormone therapy may be the next path of treatment. Should the illness persist, then a surgery may be recommended, and usually minimally invasive surgery like laparoscopy is advised.
This procedure will then be followed up with a laparoscopic surgery to remove the lesions. The Mayo Clinic explained how the surgery usually goes about. “In laparoscopic surgery, your surgeon inserts a slender viewing instrument (laparoscope) through a small incision near your navel and inserts instruments to remove endometrial tissue through another small incision. After surgery, your doctor may recommend taking hormone medication to help improve your pain.” The rest of the explanation can be found here.
After surgery, the patient can then proceed with her fertility treatments if she is trying to conceive a baby.